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Josephine had lovers, including a Hussar`s lieutenant, Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon`s Italian campaign. [218] Napoleon learned the full extent of their affair with Karl while he was in Egypt, and a letter he wrote to his brother Joseph on the subject was intercepted by the British. The letter appeared in the London and Paris newspapers, which were very embarrassed by Napoleon. Napoleon also had his own business: During the Egyptian campaign, he took Pauline Bellisle Foures, the wife of a junior officer, as his lover. It is known as „Cleopatra“ after the ancient Egyptian ruler. [219][Note 13] Shortly after the return of Bonaparte of Ibrahim, Muhammad`s birthday came, celebrated with great pomp. Bonaparte himself led the military parades for the occasion and prepared himself in an oriental dress and turban for this party at the Cheik House. It was on this occasion that the Divan gave him the title of Ali Bonaparte, after Bonaparte declared himself „a worthy son of the prophet“ and „dear to Allah.“ At about the same time, he took strict measures to protect the caravans of pilgrims from Egypt to Mecca, writing himself a letter to the governor of Mecca. The next phase of the conflict was the French invasion of the central Habsburg countries.

In the first meeting between the two armies, Napoleon repelled his opponents and advanced deep into Austrian territory. The Austrians, worried about the French advance that stretched as far as Leoben, not far from Vienna, finally decided to complain for peace. The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the wider Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Dutch, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice, imposing his capitulation and ending 1,100 years of independence. He also allowed the French to plunder treasures. In November 1810, Napoleon accepted the ascension to the Swedish throne of Bernadotte, one of his marshals, with whom Napoleon had always overwhelmed relations. Napoleon had indulging in Bernadotte`s indiscretions because he was married to Desiree Clary, his former fiancée and sister of his brother Joseph`s wife. Napoleon regretted accepting this appointment when Bernadotte then allied Sweden with France`s enemies. [105] Napoleon`s masterful propaganda contributed to his rise to power, legitimized his regime and established his image for posterity. Severe censorship, control of part of the press, books, theatre and art, was only part of his propaganda programme, which aimed to bring him to France as a desperately desired peace and stability.

Propagandist rhetoric changed in relation to the events and atmosphere of Napoleon`s rule, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving towards his role as emperor and civilian leader. In particular with regard to his civilian audience, Napoleon maintained an important, albeit troubled, relationship with the contemporary artistic community, playing an active role in the commissioning and control of various forms of artistic production to meet his propaganda objectives. [209] In January 1799, during the canal expedition, the French learned of the Ottoman enemy movements and that Jezzar had conquered the fortress of the El-Arish desert 16 km from the Syrian border with Egypt that he kept. Sure that a war with the Ottoman sultan was imminent and that he would not be able to defend himself against the Ottoman army, Bonaparte decided that his best defense would be to attack him first in Syria, where a victory would give him more time to prepare against the Ottoman troops in Rhodes.